**Top 50 Must-Know Civil Engineering Basics**

**Do you Know? Every year 500k+ Civil Engineers are graduate in India.**

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Why do you need to remember civil engineering basics?

- To enhance the supervision skill
- To connect with the practical life of a Civil Engineer
- To strengthen your base in designing and construction
- It helps you a lot in the site work

Read below all the 50 Technical points you should know to strengthen Civil Engineering Basics. This listing will be updated for more basics and advance technical knowledge, So you can also bookmark this page for a revisit.

- The volume of one bag of cement = 0.0347 cubic meters or 1.23 cubic feet
- Dimensional tolerance of cube size = 2 mm (less or more)
- Maximum diameter of the bar in slab = 1/8 x Thickness of slab
- The minimum thickness of lintel should be 150 mm
- The height of the parapet wall shall be a minimum of 1 m
- The cement must be used in 3 months from the manufacturing date of that cement bag
- The minimum thickness of DPC (damp proof course) = 75 mm
- The weight of first-class brick = 3.85 kgs
- The binding wire is used for binding 1MT(metric tonne) bars = 10-12 kgs
- The unit weight of steel = square of (DÃa of the bar)/533 kg per feet
- The weight of rod per meter = D
^{2 }L/162.2, where D = diameter of the bar and L = 1m - The minimum diameter of the bar in dowel bar = 12 mm
- The length of the crank bar = 0.42D, where D = slab thickness - 2 x cover block
- The standard length of steel bar = 12 meters or 40 feet
**The minimum clear cover is as follows:**

- Footing:- 75 mm (bottom side) and 50 mm (top side)
- Column:- 40 mm
- Slab:- 20 mm
- Beam:- 40 mm

**The density of materials**

- The density of steel = 7850 kg/m 3
- The unit weight of steel is 78.5 KN/m 3
- Cement density = 1440 kg/m 3
- Sand density = 1100 to 1600 kg/m 3
- Brick density = 1680 to 1920 kg/m 3

- Lintel provided at a height of 2.4 meters
- The unit weight of water is 10 KN/m 3
- The minimum diameter of bars shall not be less than 8 mm(HYSD) or 10 mm(Plain bars)
- The machine used for the compression test is called UTM (Universal testing machine)
- The unit weight of concrete is 25 KN/m 3 ( cum = cubic meter )
- One cement bag is equal to 50 kgs
- The standard size of brick is 19 cm X 9 cm x 9 cm
- One cubic meter volume has 500 no of bricks
- The slope of stairs shall not exceed 40 degrees
- In stairs, preferably limit the number of steps to 12 per flight
- One cubic meter of cement = 30 bags of cement
- Minimum DÃa of the bar used in column = 12 mm
- Lapping in tension, L = 50D to 60D (D = Dia of bar)
- But lapping in compression = 24D
- Also lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm
- Minimum percentage of steel in column = 0.8% of the gross area of the column
- The maximum percentage of steel in column = 6% of the gross area of the column
**Most important concrete tests**

- Compression test
- Split tensile test
- Soundness test
- Initial & Final setting test

**Most important soil tests**

- Core cutter test
- Sand replacement test

- The mortar thickness joint should be 10 mm
- Minimum no of bars in circular column = 6
- Minimum no of bars in square column = 4
- Maximum chair spacing = 1 meter and minimum DÃa of steel used for chair = 12 mm
- The freefall of concrete is allowed a maximum of 1.50 m
- Lap slices not be used for bar larger than 36 mm
- Water absorption of bricks should not be more than 15%
- PH value of water should not be less than 6
- The compressive strength of brick is 3.5 N/mm 2
- In soil filling as per IS code, 3 samples should be taken for core cutting test for every 100sm
**Curing time of RCC members for different types of cement**

- Super sulphate cement: 7 days
- Ordinary portland cement: 10 days
- Admixture added cement = 14 days

**De-shuttering time of different RCC members**

- For column, walls, vertical formwork: 16-24 hrs
- Soffit formwork to slab: 3 days (so that props to be refixed after removal)
- Soffit to beams props: 7 days (so that props refixed after removal)
- Beams spanning up to 4.5 m: 7 days
- Beams spanning over 4.5 m: 14 days
- Arches spanning: 14-21 days

- Minimum hook length of stirrup = 9D
- Slender column:- When the length to width ratio of the column is more than 12, then it is a slender column
- Frog:- A small depression on top of the brick. This is for proper bonding with other bricks
- Scaffolding:- A temporary structure, when work needs to be carried out at higher elevations

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Civil Engineering Basics - Top 50 Points

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