## Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge

Civil Engineering basic knowledge is the basic parameters related to different civil engineering fields and structures. All engineers should know these basics and especially expected from freshers. The civil engineer does many activities at the construction site and there is certain work that is repetitive in nature.

So below is the list of civil engineering basic knowledge, tips, and tricks, and important points which a civil engineer should remember for faster calculation as well as ultimate solutions to construction site problems.

Civil Engineering basic knowledge is very useful in day to day work, So you must read all points, and implement them in real site work to gain more experience in the field. Because of basic knowledge of civil engineering you can make calculation easy as well as it can save time at the site work.

**Top 70 Points to Remember**

**-Some of the very important types of cement are**

Low Heat cement used generally in the construction of dams

Sulphate resisting cement used in corrosive type environment like sewage contact surfaces

Rapid hardening cement

Quick setting cement

-**Concrete** is represented by nomenclature as M-25. M is Mix and 25 means compressive strength at the end of Civil Engineering basic knowledge is very useful in day to day work, So you must read all points, and implement them in real site work to gain more experience in the field. Because of basic knowledge of civil engineering you can make calculation easy as well as it can save time at the site work.28 days considering concrete cubes of 15 cm. Concrete has two setting types

Initial setting time – 30 min

Final setting time – 10 hrs

**-Substructure:-** Part of the structure which is below the ground the level

**-Superstructure:-** Part of the structure which is above the ground level

**-Plinth level:-** The level on which the actual structure stands on

**-Clear cover:-** It is the clear distance maintained from concrete face up to face of the reinforcement steel

**-Effective depth:-** It is the distance from the top of the concrete face up to the CG of reinforcement

**-Singly reinforced section:-** A section of the concrete member with reinforcement at only on tension zone

**-Doubly reinforced section:-** A section of the concrete member with reinforcement on both tension and compression zone

**-Stirrup:-** Steel bent in the closed shape of either rectangular or circular shape. These are generally to hold column bars in position and also effective in shear carrying capacity

**-Cantilever beam:-** A beam with a fixed support on one side and other is free

**-Propped cantilever:-** A beam with a fixed support on one side and other end is pinned support

**-One way slab:-** When the ratio of length to width is more than 2, its one-way slab

**-Two-way slab:-** When the ratio of length to width is less than or equal to 2, its two-way slab

**-Slender column:-** When the length to width ratio of the column is more than 12, then it is a slender column

**-Frog:-** A small depression on top of the brick. This is for proper bonding with other bricks

**-Scaffolding:-** A temporary structure, when work needs to be carried out at higher elevations

**-Retaining wall:-** A wall constructed to retain earth

**-The volume** of one bag cement = 0.0347 cubic meters or 1.23 cubic feet

**-Dimensional** tolerance of cube size = 2 mm (less or more)

**-Maximum** diameter of the bar in slab = 1/8 x Thickness of slab

**-The minimum** thickness of the lintel should be 150 mm

**-The height** of the parapet wall shall be a minimum of 1 m

**-The cement** must be used in 3 months from the manufacturing date of that cement bag

**-The minimum** thickness of DPC(damp proof course) = 75 mm

**-The weight** of first-class brick = 3.85 kgs

**-The binding** wire is used for binding 1MT(metric tonne) bars = 10-12 kgs

**-The unit** weight of steel = square of (dia of the bar)/533 kg per feet

**-The weight of rod per meter **= D^2 L/162.2

8 mm = 0.395 kg

10 mm = 0.616 kg

12 mm = 0.888 kg

16 mm = 1.578 kg

20 mm = 2.466 kg

25 mm = 3.853 kg

32 mm = 6.313 kg

**-The minimum** diameter of the bar in dowel bar = 12 mm

**-The length** of the crank bar = 0.42D, where D = slab thickness – 2 x cover block

**-The standard** length of steel bar = 12 meters or 40 feet

**-The minimum cover is as follows:-**

Footing:- 75 mm (bottom side) and 50 mm (top side)

Column:- 40 mm

Slab:- 20 mm

Beam:- 40 mm

**-Steel density** = 7850 kg/cum

**-The unit** weight of steel is 78.5 KN/cum

**-Cement** density = 1440 kg/cum

**-Sand density** = 1100 to 1600 kg/cum

**-Brick density** = 1680 to 1920 kg/cum

**-Lintel provided** at a height of 2.4 meters

**-The unit** weight of water is 10 KN/cum

**-The minimum** diameter of bars shall not be less than 8 mm(HYSD) or 10 mm(Plain bars)

**-The machine** used for the compression test is called UTM (Universal testing machine)

**-The unit** weight of concrete is 25 KN/cum ( cum = cubic meter )

**-One cement** bag is equal to 50 kgs

**-The standard** size of brick is 19 cm X 9 cm x 9 cm

**-One cubic** meter volume has 500 no of bricks

**-The slope** of stairs shall not exceed 40 degrees

**-In stairs**, preferably limit the number of steps to 12 per flight

**-One cubic** meter of cement = 30 bags of cement

**-Minimum** dia of the bar used in column = 12 mm

**-Lapping** in tension, L = 50D to 60D (D = dia of bar)

**-But lapping** in compression = 24D

**-Also lapping** is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm

**-Minimum** percentage of steel in column = 0.8% of the gross area of the column

**-The maximum** percentage of steel in column = 6% of the gross area of the column

**-Most important concrete tests**

Compression test

Split tensile test

Soundness test

Initial & Final setting test

**-Most important soil tests**

Core cutter test

Sand replacement test

**-Mortar** thickness joint should be 10 mm

**-Minimum** no of bars in circular column = 6

**-Minimum** no of bars in square column = 4

**-Maximum** chair spacing = 1 meter and minimum dia of steel used for chair = 12 mm

**-The freefall** of concrete is allowed a maximum of 1.50 m

**-Lap slices** not be used for bar larger than 36 mm

**-Water** absorption of bricks should not be more than 15%

**-PH** value of water should not be less than 6

**-The compressive** strength of brick is 3.5 N/mm^2

**-In soil** filling as per IS code, 3 samples should be taken for core cutting test for every 100sm

**-Curing time of RCC members for different types of cement**

Super sulphate cement: 7 days

Ordinary portland cement: 10 days

Admixture added cement = 14 days

**-De-shuttering time of different RCC members**

For column, walls, vertical formwork: 16-24 hrs

Soffit formwork to slab: 3 days (so that props to be refixed after removal)

Soffit to beams props: 7 days (so that props refixed after removal)

Beams spanning up to 4.5 m: 7 days

Beams spanning over 4.5 m: 14 days

Arches spanning: 14-21 days

**-Minimum** hook length of stirrup = 9D

So, now you have the knowledge of some important civil engineering basics but for designing, site work, and other related work you should remember these.

And below you can download the PDF version of the above list

**List of major American codes**

ACI 318 – Specification for structural concrete for buildings

ASCE 7-05 – Specification for loads on buildings

AASTHO – Specification for bridges

AISC 303 – For structural steel building

**List of major Indian codes**

Code for reinforced concrete – IS 456

Specifications for steel construction – IS 800

Wind load on the building – IS 875

For seismic specification – IS 1893

For water retaining structure – IS 3370

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